Water plays an important role in solid state pharmaceutical systems due to its impact on the chemical and physical stability of a drug substance and drug product, as well as on key physical properties that influence storage conditions.

We use various techniques to provide information on water content, hygroscopicity and hydrate formation, including:

  • Karl Fischer (volumetric or coulometric)
  • Loss on drying (LOD)
  • Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)
  • Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS)
  • Controlled relative humidity (RH)-XRPD
  • Relative humidity chambers